№ 12. The WiΩards of Fiat Currency: The Rothschilds and the Federal Reserve System

PAGE STATUS: First off, the work on the Federal Reserve System sections was abruptly halted ages ago and I have not looked at it sense. Because of this, I created Best of Breed Federal Reserve System YouTube until I finish my own work. The sections on the Rothschilds are new and under development. The stuff on the Rothschilds is new and under development.
LAST UPDATE: September 29, 2020

Rothschild Family “Great” Coat of Arms. See also The Rothschild Coat of Arms from The Rothschild Archive.

The 666 is pretty much “in your face”

The Rothschilds

It has taken me a long time to develop an appreciation for

(As a side note, for the initiated, the geocentric Age of Aquarius is actually the heliocentric Age of Leo, which explains why a lion is the other supporter on the Rothschild coat of arms

You cannot fully understand the progeny of Jove in modern times without first understanding the role of central banks and the Federal Reserve System in particular is the worldwide enslavement of the working classes. Central banks are the legitimized financial arm of the European Order of Illuminati, which has long since morphed into the Supreme Council 33° N.M. J., the CIA, and now exists as an “Unnamed Entity” well hidden behind need-to-know clearances that exclude even sitting Presidents of the United States of America and who control the government and military of the United States of America and through

Unicorn symbolism in the end time

According to Wikipedia, The Hunt of the Unicorn Tapestry in The Cloisters in New York “show a group of noblemen and hunters in pursuit of a unicorn through an idealised French landscape.”  This is correct, but fails to understand the symbolism. Tapestry 5 in particular portrays the end time, with the European Illuminati making sport of the deluded masses.

For the progeny of Jove, the unicorn has always represented the fairy tale world in which the masses live. 

There are nine men representing the progeny of Jove. There are 13 dogs attacking the Unicorn. The symbolism is unmistakable. This tapestry was made by a family who is a part of the progeny of Jove and then carefully stored to preserve it for the end times. 

We are being inundated with Unicorns right before the end. Why? I am always trying to cultivate in my readers an imagination sufficient to grasp the full dimension of what is happening right now in the world. The mundane mind resists the sheer magnitude of these thoughts.

The following image is from the “Why Are We Being Inundated with Unicorn Symbolism?” video (shown below) on the Truthstream Media YouTube channel. This is what one occult author has to say about the symbolic meaning of unicorns:

quote from Nancy Hathaway

From what I know from having studied the progeny of Jove, including the Illuminati for over five years now, is that this is exactly the kind of ridicule they love to thrust onto the masses. I do not doubt for a second that this flood of unicorns (I had one at my door last night for Halloween) is a very deliberate mocking gesture, one that only reinforces my sense that we are on the verge of something unimaginable.

If you are aware of or concerned about the intentional dumbing down of the masses, you really want to watch this Truthstream Media video:

Truthstream Media is one of my few news sources. This is a truly brilliant couple. Now you really want to watch this video entitled Why Does the Bible Mention Unicorns? from the NathanH83 YouTube channel. Nathan Hoffman is one of my most cherished sources for biblical information. He is an amazing guy, and what I would characterize as a “real” Christian. He cares enough to think. We should take the time to think about our religion.

Don’t stop now. You are on the verge of a major breakthrough

A question of paramount importance must now be asked

Why is there a unicorn (supporter) on the Rothschild coat of arms?

(A “supporter” is a technical term for heraldry.) Wikipedia has an interesting page entitled Pages in category “Coats of arms with unicorns”. The Rothschild coat of arms is clearly a throwback to the Royal coat of arms of Great Britain.

But this still begs the question, Why? There is no such animal in reality. What are the designers of these coats of arms saying by including one in their heraldry? If you watched Nathan Hoffman’s video, I think you have sufficient information to answer this question for yourself. The Royal coat of arms of Great Britain was designed only a few years before the Freemasons were created in 1717.

The progeny of Jove are mocking Christianity. The unicorn “supports” their shield because they believe Christianity is delusional. On the other side of these shields is a lion. Few people understand as did Manly P. Hall that from a heliocentric perspective, which is the perspective of the progeny of Jove, that we are not in the Age of Aquarius, but the exact opposite. We are in the Age of Leo. It is in the Age of Leo that earth is destroyed. The lion represents the physical assault on the masses. The unicorn represents the intellectual assault.

It is the same old problem. As discussed on the Sacred Numbers and Tracking the Progeny of Jove page, the Pythagoreans cannot see that there is a conscious entity behind the sacred numbers. They can only conceive of their own, haughty intelligence. And for reasons I try, perhaps in vain, to describe on the Matthew 24:15-18 (the last sign before the end) page, these men become “beasts” in the end time. This is a natural consequence of lesser mortals coming into direct contact with sure knowledge of the end times. I bury my religious stuff pretty deep, but it is where I started. I began writing when I first perceived that there was science behind what Christ Jesus says in Matthew 24. Specifically, I could see that his mention of massive lightning (such as is reported daily in the news) in the end times was related to an increase in galactic cosmic ray (GCR) flux. See Galactic Cosmic Rays Cause Lightning for a discussion. The point is, this unicorn onslaught is yet another sign that we are in the end time. These people know. They are using their control of the markets to drown us in symbolism that is for them 300 years old. Why now? It is what it appears to be, a celebration of the end times.

While I was working on this very section, the doorbell rang. It was three young children. One of them was a little girl came dressed as a unicorn. It was Halloween night 2019. I smiles as always and greeted them. 

Little did her parents know. I thought about her future for a moment and then returned to work on An Apocalyptic Synthesis.

Best of Breed Federal Reserve System Documentary

I think this video is the most balanced I have ever seen. There are a countless number of them. I am encouraged that my choice was a good one because the account was “terminated because we received multiple third-party claims of copyright infringement regarding material the user posted.” This is happening with increasingly greater frequency either because of censorship or because private businesses are now competing with YouTube for business. I for one refuse to subscribe to any of them.

I spend countless hours searching for best of breed YouTube videos. When the problem of disappearing YouTube videos began to have a huge impact on my work, I learned to copy the video before even posting a link to the original on my website. Some of these videos, including the one you are about to watch, require countless hours of toil to produce. They are rare because it requires not only someone who has an insightful perspective on what is happening, but who is also talented at producing videos. I can tell you from firsthand experience, that is not a skill easily acquired.  Now when a video such as this one disappears, I just use the copy and the original attribution. This is a long video, but you need to understand the Federal Reserve. It is the muscle of the European Illuminati.

FEDERAL RESERVE 100 years of Money for Nothing – film documentary from The Money Inc YouTube channel:

The Federal Reserve System

Alexander Hamilton was not Illuminati. And Freemason historians disavow him. George Washington was most certainly not an Illuminati. There is only one explanation for what is happening here. The young Alexander Hamilton, born January 11, 1757, is a mere 24 years old when he writes the following critical letter in the history of central banks to Robert Morris, the “Financier of the Revolution.” He is nothing more or less than a tool of what we would call today the banksters in New York City. Indeed, anyone who studies this period of bank history comes to the same conclusion.

The Inexperienced Lie of Youth


The tendency of a national bank is to increase public and private credit. The former gives power to the state for the protection of its rights and interests, and the latter facilitates and extends the operations of commerce among individuals. Industry is increased, commodities are multiplied, agriculture and manufactures flourish, and herein consist the true wealth and prosperity of a state.

Most commercial nations have found it necessary to institute banks and they have proved to be the happiest engines, that ever were invented for advancing trade. Venice Genoa Hamburgh Holland and England are examples of their utility. They owe their riches, commerce and the figure they have made at different periods in a great degree to this source. Great Britain is indebted for the immense efforts she has been able to make in so many illustrious and successful wars essentially to that vast fabric of credit raised on this foundation. Tis by this alone she now menaces our independence.

The Worldly Reality of Age and Experience


William Pitt, Chancellor of the Exchequer, said of the inauguration of the first National Bank in the United States under Alexander Hamilton, ”Let the American people go into their debt-funding schemes and banking systems, and from that hour their boasted independence will be a mere phantom.”  —REAL MONEY versus BANKS OF ISSUE PROMISES TO PAY: THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR IN CIVILIZATION AND LEAST UNDERSTOOD by T. Cushing Daniel, 1911, p. 272 [bold-red emphasis added]

Note: “The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty’s Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty’s Treasury. The office is a British Cabinet-level position.”  —Wikipedia, Chancellor of the Exchequer. In other words, at the time he spoke these words, William Pit was “Secretary of Treasury” for Britain, the counterpart of Alexander Hamilton. But this is very misleading because in truth William Pit was the Andrew Jackson of England.

If you want to understand what you are about to read, know this:  the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, Northern Jurisdiction includes both New York and Pennsylvania. Pay attention to the timing of when the Supreme Council, 33°, Northern Masonic Jurisdiction (N.M.J.) is founded. I’m not trying to sell you some damned conspiracy theory. I’m telling you the truth about the history of the United States of America. Our country was lost in the Civil War, but before that it was lost in 1813 when the Supreme Council, 33°, N.M.J. was founded and the unseen agitators in New York City and Philadelphia “cried ‘Havoc!,’ and let slip the dogs of war” on their own people.

Esoteric drivel and moral blindness

We imagine ourselves more civilized than the ancient peoples of Central America who routinely sacrificed people, not seeing that what we routinely do is even more savage. Whoever among us imagines were are ascending in the cycle of Yugas, and here I would most emphatically include Swami Sri Yukteswar Giri, that mankind has safely departed the Kali Yuga (or Iron Age), and is headed toward a brighter future is grotesquely deluded and mesmerized by a few technological trinkets. The clock just struck midnight according to the ancients, less than a month ago at the time of this writing. Such gullible people cannot see what is really happening. Everyday hundreds and thousands are sacrificed on the alter of the progeny of Jove’s agenda. We are the walking dead to them. This central bank timeline leads straight to the Civil War in which an estimated 620,000 men lost their lives. About another 20 million died in WWI. And an estimated 70-85 million died in WWII. All of these were sacrifices to the gods of our overlords, the progeny of Jove. If you knew and understood how consciously these men and woman were sent to their deaths, you would understand that the clock really just strike midnight on the Yuga cycle. And it does not start upwards until after the apocalypse. Now comes the really hard part. Your mind will deflect what I am about to say. You will dismiss it as if you did not even read the words. Nevertheless it must be said.

Once you understand that the modern modus operandi of human sacrifice is more barbaric and savage than anything that was ever done in Central America, you are ready to wrap yourself around the reality of pedophilia in England and the United States of America. That’s right. There is a direct connection between central banks and pedophilia. The former is a training ground for learning how to disregard the humanity of your fellow human beings. The latter is a right of passage for those in possession of the certain knowledge of what is about to happen. Just because we have learned to live with these animals and our bookshelves are full of their dissertations on how to refine the financial abuses Andrew Jackson tried so hard to stop, doesn’t change the fact that these are monstrous, vile human beings. Writing the section on Rampant Pedophilia was unimaginably horrific for me. The least you can do is read it. The banksters of this world rape our children and, whether you choose to believe it or not doesn’t change the fact, do sacrifice the lives of children. Both practices are rights of passage for the progeny of Jove in these end times. Walk away if you can. Tell yourself whatever lie is necessary. But I cannot hide the reality of what is happening.

You and I are alive at the worst possible time. The only mitigating factor from where I stand is that we are the generation that witnesses what the Bible calls the “day of the Lord.” And if you have any faith in the afterlife, that’s no small compensation for a few short years on this dreary planet. 

The Bank of North America pictured above was the first de facto central bank in the United States

What follows is a timeline for central banks in the United States of America…


Why is the American Revolutionary War the first entry in a timeline for central banks? Because the second entry is that the Bank of North America is approved by congress. There is a pattern of financial panic followed by a new central bank that continues from this time until the Federal Reserve system is created. Lacking a central bank to fabricate a financial panic in these early years of the United States, war is the only option. The progeny of Jove are consummate, brilliant planners. Hardly anything happens in history that they did not intend to happen. In fact, Christ Jesus and Christianity is the only example that come readily to mind. In the case, the took the “if you can’t beat’em, join’em” tack when Constantine the Great bastardized Christianity and later when the Jesuits too control of the Roman Catholic Church.

To understand what is happening at this juncture in history, you must know that the highly unusual Pikes Peak granite batholith in the Front Range was chosen as the last refuge of the progeny of Jove, or what Virgil called the “vault profound” thousands of years ago. American independence from Great Britain was never in question. Everything is happening by design. This includes everything from Great Britain “losing” the American Revolutionary War to the Confederate losses at the Battle of Gettysburg.


The original charter called for the disbursement of 1,000 shares priced at $400 each. Benjamin Franklin purchased one share for 0.1% ownership as a sign of good faith to Federalists and the new bank and Hamilton made public endorsement of the establishment under his pseudonym.

Public offering

William Bingham’s first daughter, Ann Louisa Baring, was born the day before the bank opened, and her father purchased 9.5% of the shares for himself. She was also the granddaughter of Thomas Willing, a primary shareholder and the original President of the bank offices at Philadelphia. Using a gift/loan from France, Robert Morris purchased 63.3% of the original shares for the government. Robert Morris deposited large quantities of gold and silver coin and bills of exchange obtained through loans from the Netherlands and France. He then issued new paper currency backed by this supply.  —Wikipedia, Bank of North America [bold-red emphasis added]


The Second Report on the Public Credit also referred to as The Report on a National Bank was the second of four influential reports on fiscal and economic policy delivered to Congress by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton. The Report, submitted on December 14, 1790, called for the establishment of a central bank, its primary purpose to expand the flow of legal tender by monetizing the national debt through the issuance of federal bank notes. Modeled on the Bank of England, this privately held, but publicly funded institution would also serve to process revenue fees and perform fiscal duties for the federal government. Secretary Hamilton regarded the bank as indispensable to producing a stable and flexible financial system.   —Wikipedia, Second Report on Public Credit [bold-red emphasis added]

Alexander Hamilton founded the Federalist Party and co-authored The Federalist Papers. The federalists favored a strong central government with a national bank.

Bank of the United States, commonly referred to as First Bank of the United States of just First Bank. Much like the “Bank of England” or the “Federal Reserve,” the naming scheme is intended to hide the fact that these are all private corporations owned by some of the richest people in the world.


First Bank of the United States in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is chartered for a term of twenty years as a central repository for federal funds.

According to the plan put before the first session of the First Congress in 1790, Hamilton proposed establishing the initial funding for the First Bank of the United States through the sale of $10 million in stock of which the United States government would purchase the first $2 million in shares. Hamilton, foreseeing the objection that this could not be done since the U.S. government did not have $2 million, proposed that the government makes the stock purchase using money lent to it by the bank; the loan to be paid back in ten equal annual installments. The remaining $8 million of stock would be available to the public, both in the United States and overseas. —Wikipedia, First Bank of the United States [bold-red emphasis added]


And this is relevant to a central bank timeline why? Because I admire the work of Scott Creighton and Gary Osborn. I believe their research is critical to understanding both the design of the Great Pyramid of Giza and the history of the progeny of Jove during the time they were building the great cathedrals and painting the old masterworks. The point of mentioning L’enfant’s plan for what would become Washington, D.C. is to show the power of the The Supreme Council, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, USA (commonly known as the Mother Supreme Council of the World). You can see this for yourself by watching the first 2:32 minutes of the following video. Here it is worth noting that L’enfant was a Freemason, as discussed in The Masonic Career of Major Pierre Charles L’Enfant. At his time in history, the Freemasons are still the progeny of Jove in their day. They are infiltrated by the Illuminati, but I argue this was always meant to be. The Freemasons of the South were destined to be Founding Fathers of the United States of America, but the Illuminati were meant to rule over it and the world in the end times. The difference between the two groups of men is the difference between the love of knowledge and the love of power and money. If there is a third, controlling entity (which I call The Nine), they not only sanctioned this transition, they anticipated it thousands of years ago. It is the nature of the beast. In the ends times, a brutal instinct would be necessary to achieve the goals of the progeny of Jove (such as the extinction of the Jewish race, for example).

“02 Washington DC Part 1 – Secrets in Plain Sight” from the Secrets in Plain Sight channel:

In about 20 years, the power of the Freemasons in the South would start to wane and continue to due so until they are fully subjugated to the Illuminati posing as Freemasons in the North. Of course, when I say things like this, I am not referring to the rank and file. They never know anything. It is the leadership of which I am speaking. It is a huge change, and it is what the Georgia Guidestones are all about.


Expiration of charter

After Hamilton left office in 1795, the new Secretary of the Treasury Oliver Wolcott, Jr. informed Congress that, due to the existing state of government finances, more money was needed. This could be achieved either by selling the government’s shares of stock in the bank or by raising taxes. Wolcott advised the first choice. Congress quickly agreed. Hamilton objected, believing that the dividends on that stock had been inviolably pledged for the support of the sinking fund to retire the debt. Hamilton tried to organize opposition to the measure but was unsuccessful.

In 1811, the U.S. Senate tied on a vote to renew the bank’s charter. Vice President George Clinton broke the tie and voted against renewal. The bank’s charter thus expired in 1811.  —Wikipedia, First Bank of the United States, Expiration of charter

JUNE 18, 1812President James Madison DECLARES WAR

US states in the Northern Jurisdiction


The progeny of Jove love their numbers. It is how you track them through history. Please note that May 1 is the same date on which Adam Weishaupt founded the Illuminati in 1776.  And of course the year 1813 is full of symbolism, the most significant of which is that it is exactly 200 years before the actual end date of the Mesoamerican (misnamed “Mayan”) Long Count calendar which was December 16, 2013. The timing of this move should make it perfectly clear to the reader that the Illuminati has already by this time infiltrated the Freemasons in the North.

On May 1, 1813, an officer from the Supreme Council at Charleston initiated several New York Masons into the Thirty-third Degree and organized a Supreme Council for the “Northern Masonic District and Jurisdiction”. On May 21, 1814 this Supreme Council reopened and proceeded to “nominate, elect, appoint, install and proclaim in due, legal and ample form” the elected officers “as forming the second Grand and Supreme Council…”. Finally, the charter of this organization (written January 7, 1815) added, “We think the Ratification ought to be dated 21st day May [1815].”  —Wikipedia, Supreme Council, Scottish Rite, Northern Jurisdiction, USA

You must remember that there are only 18 states in 1813. This division of the Freemasons is a prelude to the Civil War. Only five of the original 13 colonies are not included in the N.M.J.. They are Georgia, Maryland, South Carolina, Virginia, and North Carolina. And Maryland was a slave state. But this division is not about slavery. Slavery is the pretext the Illuminati use to take control of the federal government. 

Results from the 1812 U.S. presidential election (credit Wikipedia)


Congress received a petition signed by 150 businessmen from New York City, urging the legislative body to create a second national bank.


The Treaty of Ghent ended the War of 1812. News of the treaty does not reach the United States for several weeks.

The Death of Pakenham at the Battle of New Orleans by F. O. C. Darley shows the death of British Major General Sir Edward Pakenham on January 8, 1815. (credit Wikipedia)


The Battle of New Orleans took place directly after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent on December 24, 1814, before news of the treaty could reach the United States; the Americans defended against a British assault on New Orleans, resulting in a major American victory. In just over a half hour, the Americans suffered around 70 casualties, while the British suffered roughly 2,000 casualties.  —Wikipedia, The Battle of New Orleans

Brevet Major General Andrew Jackson becomes “The Hero of New Orleans”

Second Bank of the United States (a.k.a. Second Bank) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (credit History Central)


The Second Bank of the United States in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is chartered for a term of twenty years.

A private corporation with public duties, the bank handled all fiscal transactions for the U.S. Government, and was accountable to Congress and the U.S. Treasury. Twenty percent of its capital was owned by the federal government, the bank’s single largest stockholder. Four thousand private investors held 80% of the bank’s capital, including one thousand Europeans. The bulk of the stocks were held by a few hundred wealthy Americans. In its time, the institution was the largest monied corporation in the world. —Wikipedia, Second Bank of the United States [bold-red emphasis added]


The Second Bank has been in operation for 13 years. There is another seven years before its charter expires in January 1836. Andrew Jackson is the seventh U.S. President, but more importantly he is the third Freemason President. He is the quintessential Freemason of the South, a natural born leader of the highest character. For the country, this time in the history of the United States of America represents the road not taken, for Andrew Jackson will win the Bank War but the forces at work here are not unlike the two or three mile high megatsunami waves that will very soon wash across North America. They cannot be stopped. Likewise, the Freemasons of the South will soon loose their country to the Illuminati in the Civil War, which war i would characterize as the ultimate expression of the power conferred upon the progeny of Jove by their certain knowledge of what is about to happen. They do not wince while slaughtering 620,000 men in order to wrestle control of the federal government from the Freemasons of the South. Ultimately, perhaps unknown even to this day by the men who designed the Georgia Guidestones, what is happening here is a changing of the guard. The Freemasons of the South are a special lineage within the progeny of Jove. Their purpose was to found the United States of America. Within the original Freemasons specific knowledge of the end times was only ever shared with the highest ranking Freemasons and only then on a need-to-know basis. By the time of President Andrew Jackson their mission is completed.

Now a less noble breed of men are needed. We call these men the Illuminati. The Freemason lineage is about to come to an end in the aftermath of the Civil War. What I never realized, however, until I started to study the Georgia Guidestones, was that this demarcation was not as clean as those on the progeny of Jove page that I generally describe as a “beheading” of the previous organizational entity. Some men with a specific knowledge of the end times were left behind in the South after the end of the Civil War. Unlike the Illuminati who have been working at a frantic pace to prepare (they call it providence, a word few people know has two distinct meanings) for the coming apocalypse, these men have had the leisure to reflect on what is happening in the here and now. Their statement, twenty years in the making and I believe perhaps much longer, is the Georgia Guidestones.

The United States of America is to become one big money making machine in order to finance the work on the extensive tunnel systems in the Pikes Peak granite as well as all of physical plant starting with the Cheesman Dam and ending with the Denver International Airport, the of the Front Range while maintaining control of the entire world.

But in this brief time to which I think the Georgia Guidestones are alluding, we get a glimpse of what could have been. What few minds can even glimpse, is that this road not taken has been the story of the Fifth World. The decision of the progeny of Jove to exclude the masses from the knowledge of the coming destruction of the world was, in my mind, a fundamental mistake. While I can respect what they are trying to do, I would argue fervently that had they told everyone thousands of years ago, we could have been off the planet by now. Instead, everything hinges on the integrity of the extensive tunnels systems in the Pikes Peak granite of the Front Range. They glory as did Virgil when he cried out “All, see, enraptured of the coming time!,” but in truth theirs is a stupid gamble. I say again, it is self-evident that we could have been off the planet. Yes, there would have been perilous times with everyone know their days are limited, but what difference would that make for bases on the Moon or Mars? I wish you men could know that I am not making this up. The message that your tunnel are going to fail has become who and what I am. It was the first thing that came to me, ahead of everything else. That is precisely how I know it is true.

second bank corruption

A new book on the subject, published January 2019 even as I write this section

Desperate courage makes One a majority 

—Andrew Jackson

(As quoted by James Parton in the Life of Andrew Jackson (1860), vol. III, ch. XXXVI, “War Upon the Bank Renewed”)


The bank, Mr. Van Buren, is trying to kill me, but I will kill it.

Said to Martin Van Buren and quoted in The Autobiography of Martin Van Buren, published in Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1918, vol. II (1920), ed. John Clement Fitzpatrick, ch. XLIII (p. 625)

JULY 10, 1832, THE BANK VETO message to the senate (full text)

It is maintained by some that the bank is a means of executing the constitutional power “to coin money and regulate the value thereof.” Congress have established a mint to coin money and passed laws to regulate the value thereof. The money so coined, with its value so regulated, and such foreign coins as Congress may adopt are the only currency known to the Constitution. But if they have other power to regulate the currency, it was conferred to be exercised by themselves, and not to be transferred to a corporation. If the bank be established for that purpose, with a charter unalterable without its consent, Congress have parted with their power for a term of years, during which the Constitution is a dead letter. It is neither necessary nor proper to transfer its legislative power to such a bank, and therefore unconstitutional.

It is to be regretted that the rich and powerful too often bend the acts of government to their selfish purposes. Distinctions in society will always exist under every just government. Equality of talents, of education, or of wealth can not be produced by human institutions. In the full enjoyment of the gifts of Heaven and the fruits of superior industry, economy, and virtue, every man is equally entitled to protection by law; but when the laws undertake to add to these natural and just advantages artificial distinctions, to grant titles, gratuities, and exclusive privileges, to make the rich richer and the potent more powerful, the humble members of society — the farmers, mechanics, and laborers — who have neither the time nor the means of securing like favors to themselves, have a right to complain of the injustice of their government. There are no necessary evils in government. Its evils exist only in its abuses. If it would confine itself to equal protection, and, as Heaven does its rains, shower its favors alike on the high and the low, the rich and the poor, it would be an unqualified blessing.

  —President Andrew Jackson

The papers on the floor name the newspapers and journals Nicholas Biddle and the banksters in NYC were using to sway public opinion against President Andrew Jackson. There is nothing new under the sun when it comes to such tactics.

SEPTEMBER 10, 1833, Order for the removal of the public money deposited in the second Bank

In what is sometimes heralded as the “final salvo” of the Bank War, President Andrew Jackson effectively destroys the Second Bank of the United States.


This is the original, which includes that text. It is strangely difficult to find. Not even Wikipedia has it. I found it at long last on Tennessee Blue Book: A History of Tennessee – Student Edition, Tennessee State Library and Archives Education Outreach Program

There were a plethora of vicious political cartoons publicly lampooning President Andrew Jackson in his time, but none evidenced their motive of character assassination more than this own.

This is in my mind, a perfect example of what I call the “law of opposites” on my homepage. President Jackson is seen here standing on a copy of the Constitution of United States of America, which he more than once risked his life to defend. Why? Because he does not think a private corporation such as is The Federal Reserve System is constitutional. Anybody who doubts this should try to find the law requiring United States citizens to pay an income tax.

Scan2Net Scanner Output


Gentlemen! I too have been a close observer of the doings of the Bank of the United States. I have had men watching you for a long time, and am convinced that you have used the funds of the bank to speculate in the breadstuffs of the country. When you won, you divided the profits amongst you, and when you lost, you charged it to the bank. You tell me that if I take the deposits from the bank and annul its charter I shall ruin ten thousand families. That may be true, gentlemen, but that is your sin! Should I let you go on, you will ruin fifty thousand families, and that would be my sin! You are a den of vipers and thieves. I have determined to rout you out, and by the Eternal, (bringing his fist down on the table) I will rout you out!

—From the original minutes of the Philadelphia committee of citizens sent to meet with President Jackson (February 1834)


Events have satisfied my mind, and I think the minds of the American people, that the mischiefs and dangers which flow from a national bank far over-balance all its advantages. The bold effort the present bank has made to control the Government, the distresses it has wantonly produced, the violence of which it has been the occasion in one of our cities famed for its observance of law and order, are but premonitions of the fate which awaits the American people should they be deluded into a perpetuation of this institution or the establishment of another like it. —President Andrew Jackson

MARCH 4, 1837, FAREWELL ADDRESS (full text)

The distress and alarm which pervaded and agitated the whole country when the Bank of the United States waged war upon the people in order to compel them to submit to its demands can not yet be forgotten. The ruthless and unsparing temper with which whole cities and communities were oppressed, individuals impoverished and ruined, and a scene of cheerful prosperity suddenly changed into one of gloom and despondency ought to be indelibly impressed on the memory of the people of the United States. If such was its power in a time of peace, what would it not have been in a season of war, with an enemy at your doors? No nation but the freemen of the United States could have come out victorious from such a contest; yet, if you had not conquered, the Government would have passed from the hands of the many to the hands of the few, and this organized money power from its secret conclave would have dictated the choice of your highest officers and compelled you to make peace or war, as best suited their own wishes. The forms of your Government might for a time have remained, but its living spirit would have departed from it.

The distress and sufferings inflicted on the people by the bank are some of the fruits of that system of policy which is continually striving to enlarge the authority of the Federal Government beyond the limits fixed by the Constitution. The powers enumerated in that instrument do not confer on Congress the right to establish such a corporation as the Bank of the United States, and the evil consequences which followed may warn us of the danger of departing from the true rule of construction and of permitting temporary circumstances or the hope of better promoting the public welfare to influence in any degree our decisions upon the extent of the authority of the General Government. Let us abide by the Constitution as it is written, or amend it in the constitutional mode if it is found to be defective.

The severe lessons of experience will, I doubt not, be sufficient to prevent Congress from again chartering such a monopoly, even if the Constitution did not present an insuperable objection to it. But you must remember, my fellow-citizens, that eternal vigilance by the people is the price of liberty, and that you must pay the price if you wish to secure the blessing.

We failed President Andrew Jackson. We failed the hero of the Battle of New Orleans which ended the War of 1812.

Here an important question must be asked. Who is Andrew Jackson fighting? Is his enemy Alexander Hamilton, the first Secretary of Treasury? All three of Alexander Hamilton’s most important detractors, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and U.S. Attorney General Edmund Randolph, were from Virginia (i.e. the South). He was a lawyer from New York. Was Alexander Hamilton somehow connected to an Illuminati plot to use the power of a central bank to take control of the United States of America? I think not. Freemasons historians are adamant that he was not one of their own.

President Jackson is objecting to privatizing the national bank. He was fighting the good fight. But he is also fighting a losing battle. The progeny of Jove are readying themselves to take control of the country. The James Buchanan presidency is a mere 25 years into the future. What you are seeing here is about to be characterized as the “final salvo of the Bank War,” but in reality it is the opening salvo of the Civil War, the consolidation of wealth and power in the North. The first U.S. Attorney General Edmund Randolph (1789-1794) and three Presidents of the United States of America, Thomas Jefferson (1801 to 1809), James Madison (1809 to 1817), and Andrew Jackson (1829-1832) could see what was happening and tried unsuccessfully to stop it. Nothing and nobody can impede the progress of the progeny of Jove in their march toward the New World. If you don’t understand the power of the knowledge they possess, you will never understand the history of the Untied States of America. Theirs is a mandate from the God of Pythagoras. We are all Andrew Jackson. God love him for trying.  

“The Petition,” a famous painting by the world-renowned artist John Ward Dunsmore, depicts Alexander Hamilton as one of these in attendance in American Union Lodge. Hamilton was not a Mason. There were several other non-Masons pictured. Dunsmore, using his “license as an artist,” started a myth that continues to this day. —SOME MASONIC MISCONCEPTIONS by Allen E. Roberts

Alexander Hamilton was not a Freemason. One might think he somehow came under the influence of George Washington (decidedly a Freemason) in this regard, but this doubtful. See Alexander Hamilton and his Patron, George Washington.

Nicholas Biddle

Biddle’s most important accomplishments as a member of the legislature consisted in the introduction of two seminal bills. One established a public schooling system in Pennsylvania. the other won the renewal of the charter for the Bank of the United States, which initiated his career in the financial realm of U.S. politics. His participation in national banking was curtailed through the War of 1812, during which time Biddle served as a member of the state senate. In 1819, the Bank of the United States was re-chartered and President James Monroe appointed Biddle to the position of Government Director. The president of the bank resigned shortly thereafter, and Biddle assumed the office in 1822. He served as President of the Bank until 1839. The bill to re-charter the bank was vetoed in 1832 be president Andrew Jackson who opposed the bank. In order to undermine the credibility of the bank, Jackson withdrew all the government deposits in 1833, which had repercussions throughout the national economy. He continued his bank war through another recession in 1837 until 1839, when Biddle resigned as President of the Bank, and the Bank failed completely in 1841.

The Rise and Fall of Nicholas Biddle

Brilliant and seemingly destined for greatness, America’s first central banker failed when put to the test in the Bank War

Phil Davies | Senior Writer

Published September 1, 2008  | September 2008 issue

When the Second Bank of the United States was at the height of its power, wrote the Inquirer newspaper of Philadelphia in February 1844, “no man was more courted or eulogized” than its president, Nicholas Biddle.1 The Inquirer was being kind; years removed from his heyday, Biddle had just died in utter disgrace.

Photo: Nicholas Biddle

A renaissance man accomplished in literature as well as finance, Biddle was the country’s first central banker, and he was a master of his craft. Under his firm direction, the Second Bank grew into a powerful instrument of monetary stability, the rock upon which a decade of robust economic growth was built. But for all his financial brilliance and managerial skill, Biddle had faults that proved to be fatal for the Bank and his career. Arrogant, hypersensitive to criticism and unschooled in politics, he failed when put to the test during the vitriolic battle between Biddle and President Andrew Jackson over the rechartering of the Bank.

Few who met Biddle as a young man doubted that he would go far. Son of a successful Philadelphia merchant, he graduated from Princeton University at the age of 15, at the top of his class. While still a teenager, he served as secretary to the U.S. minister to Napoleonic France, working on the financial details of the Louisiana Purchase. Later he was secretary to James Monroe, the U.S. minister in Britain and future president. Admitted to the bar, he showed more interest in letters than the law, preparing the journals of the Lewis and Clark expedition for publication and editing the Port Folio, an influential literary magazine. Marriage to an heiress allowed him to indulge his fascination with ancient Greek culture on a huge estate outside Philadelphia.

Biddle was also interested in banking and the economy. In 1811, as a newly elected member of the Pennsylvania Legislature, he spoke in favor of a new federal charter for the First Bank of the United States, which many state lawmakers opposed. In a speech that has been called “the maturest expression of banking knowledge to be found in America in that period,”2 Biddle argued that the First Bank was constitutional and crucial to the economy as a repository of wealth and issuer of uniform currency.

The speech established him as an authority on banking, currency and government finance, and when in 1819 President Monroe was looking for a new government director to help manage the troubled Second Bank, he picked Biddle, his former secretary and friend. Bright, strong-willed and articulate, Biddle quickly became one of the Bank’s most influential directors. Committed now to a career in finance instead of literature, he quipped in a verse written for a young admirer that: “I prefer my last letter from Barings or Hope/to the finest epistles of Pliny or Pope.”3

Biddle became president at age 37—younger than most of the directors who elected him—and immediately put into action his plan for developing the Bank into a great balance wheel of the monetary system. Biddle was “the prototype of the modern business executive,”4 a manager who could both formulate bold ideas and execute them by delegating to handpicked subordinates.

Those talents proved inadequate, however, when Biddle was thrown into the political cauldron that Jackson stirred up during the Bank War. He had personality flaws that worsened the conflict and drove him to take extreme measures to save the Bank. Biddle was excitable, self-important and compulsively defensive about the Bank and his image. “[H]is feelings never got the better of his manners but often marred his judgment,” said banking historian Bray Hammond.5 Moreover, he was politically inept, overplaying his hand at pivotal moments of his struggle with Jackson.

Biddle exasperated the president by his repeated refusal to seriously investigate charges of political interference by some Bank branches during the 1828 elections. And he squandered what might have been opportunities for rapprochement with Jackson, brushing off his allegations against the Bank and antagonizing him by pressing ahead with recharter in 1832.

Stubbornness spilled over into recklessness at the climax of the Bank War, when Biddle used the Bank as an economic weapon and made inflammatory remarks about Jackson. “This worthy President thinks that because he has scalped Indians and imprisoned Judges, he is to have his way with the Bank,” Biddle wrote to a federal judge in February 1834.6 By the fall of that year, Biddle was so reviled for his nationwide curtailment of credit that he was hunted by mobs in Philadelphia, forcing him to bar the doors of his house and post armed guards.

Arguably, a more temperate and politically astute leader of the Second Bank would have found common ground with Jackson, resulting in a peaceful end to the Bank War and renewal of the Bank’s charter. It’s conceivable that if not for Biddle, the Bank would have stayed in business for decades, altering the course of banking history.

We’ll never know, of course; the Second Bank was destroyed, and out of its ashes Biddle formed the U.S. Bank of Pennsylvania, a commercial bank run under a state charter. In private banking, Biddle could not replicate the success and adulation he had enjoyed as a central banker. As president of the Pennsylvania bank, Biddle authorized risky loans and investments, and hatched a dubious plan to use bank funds to corner the market on cotton. After Biddle retired in 1839—briefly pursuing the U.S. presidency as a Whig running against Martin Van Buren—he and other former officers of the bank were indicted for fraud and theft in connection with the cotton scheme. The charges were dismissed, but creditors had lost faith in the bank, and it failed in the Depression of 1839–43.

The collapse of the bank consumed Biddle’s personal fortune and what remained of his reputation. Broke and shunned by old friends and associates, he retreated to his wife’s estate, where he died at the age of 58—heartbroken, according to his biographer, at the loss of the bank and his fall from grace.7

Phil Davies



1 Thomas P. Govan, Nicholas Biddle: Nationalist and Public Banker (University of Chicago Press, 1959) p. 412.

2 Fritz Redlich, The Molding of American Banking: Men and Ideas(New York: Hafner, 1947) p. 110.

3 Bray Hammond, Banks and Politics in America: From the Revolution to the Civil War (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1957) p. 292. Baring Brothers and Hope and Co. were international banking firms.

4 Redlich, p. 118.

5 Hammond, p. 297.

6 Nicholas Biddle, The Correspondence of Nicholas Biddle, ed. Reginald C. McGrane (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1919) p. 222.

7 Govan, p. 411.

January 30, 1835

Attempted assassination of Andrew Jackson (the first ever attempt to assassinate a current or former U.S. President)




In what might be the most perfect example ever of what I call the “law of opposites” on my homepage, slavery was instigated at this time throughout the entire United States of America in the form of the fledgling Federal Reserve system, as can be seen by these two entries from History of the Federal Reserve

1836-1865: The Free Banking Era

State-chartered banks and unchartered “free banks” took hold during this period, issuing their own notes, redeemable in gold or specie. Banks also began offering demand deposits to enhance commerce. In response to a rising volume of check transactions, the New York Clearinghouse Association was established in 1853 to provide a way for the city’s banks to exchange checks and settle accounts.

1863: National Banking Act

During the Civil War, the National Banking Act of 1863 was passed, providing for nationally chartered banks, whose circulating notes had to be backed by U.S. government securities. An amendment to the act required taxation on state bank notes but not national bank notes, effectively creating a uniform currency for the nation. Despite taxation on their notes, state banks continued to flourish due to the growing popularity of demand deposits, which had taken hold during the Free Banking Era.


British Prime Minister William Pitt, whose nation’s debt doubled to £243 million during the American Revolutionary War, stated:

“Let the American people go into their debt-funding schemes and banking systems, and from that hour their boasted independence will be a mere phantom.”

 described the Bank of the United States “as a machine for the corruption of the legislature.”

In 1811, James Madison refused to recharter the Bank of the United States.

As British financiers reportedly owned two-thirds of the Bank’s stock, this may have been a factor precipitating the War of 1812. 

France incurred enormous debt helping America win independence from Britain.

This destabilized the country, leading to King Louis XVI being forced from the throne and then beheaded on January 21, 1793.

The French Republic was formed, but by 1799 it was bankrupt, setting the stage for Napoleon to take power.

R. McNair Wilson’s book, Monarchy or Money Power(1933), stated:

“It was ordained by Napoleon that money should not be exported from France on any pretext whatever except with the consent of the Government, and that in no circumstances should loans be employed to meet current expenditure whether civil or military.

The object was to withhold from finance the power to embarrass the Government as it had embarrassed the Government of Louis XVI.

… When a Government, Bonaparte declared, is dependent for money upon bankers, they and not the leaders of that Government control the situation, since ‘the hand that gives is above the hand that takes’ …

‘Money,’ he declared, ‘has no motherland; financiers are without patriotism and without decency: their sole object is gain.'”

Nathan Rothschild helped fund the Duke of Wellington’s British armies against Napoleon in Spain and France.

A legend persists that Nathan Rothschild obtained early information of the British victory over Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo, June 18, 1815.

Rothschild began to sell his shares on the London Stock Exchange, leading investors to suspect he had inside information that the British lost the battle, resulting in panic-selling off of stocks.

The legend continued that he bought up devalued shares at low prices, and when news arrived the next day that the British had actually wonthe Battle of Waterloo, the stock market enthusiastically exploded, resulting in Rothschild making a million pounds sterling in a day.

A maxim attributed to the House of Rothschild was: “Let us control the money of a nation, and we care not who makes its laws.”

On April 10, 1816, the Second Bank of the United States received its charter.

By 1822, the rechartered Second Bank of the United States was run by Nicholas Biddle who boasted of having more personal power than the President.

Nicholas Biddleset interest rates and reserve requirements, which allowed him to amass an enormous personal wealth.

Nicholas Biddle bought political influence by financing the election campaigns of politicians.

Biddle owned newspapers and would have them editorialize and sway voters during elections.

Ambitious politicians sought his money and his ability to provide favorable media coverage.

On JULY 10, 1832, President Andrew Jackson vetoed the charter renewal ofNicholas Biddle’s Second Bank of the United States, stating:

“Some of powers and privileges possessed by the existing Bank are unauthorized by the Constitutionsubversive to the rights of the States, and dangerous to the liberties of the people …

It is easy to conceive that great evils to our country and its institutions might flow from such a concentration of power in the hands of a few men irresponsible to the people …

… Their power would be great whenever they might choose to exert it … to influence elections or control the affairs of the nation.

But if any private citizen or public functionary should interpose to curtail its powers or prevent a renewal of its privileges, it cannot be doubted that he would be made to feel its influence …”

Andrew Jackson continued:

” Controlling our currency,receiving our public moneys, and holding thousands of our citizens in dependence, it would be more formidable and dangerous than the naval and military power of the enemy.”

Economist John Maynard Keynes held the same view, as he wrote in his bookThe Economic Consequences of the Peace (1920, reprinted 1971, p. 235):

“Lenin is said to have declared ‘The best way to destroy the capitalist system is to debauch the currency.'”

On September 18, 1833, President Andrew Jackson decided to remove all Federal money out of Nicholas Biddle’s Second Bank of the United States:

” The Bank is thus converted into a vast electioneering engine, with means to embroil the country in deadly feuds, and … extend itscorruption through all the ramifications of society …

… The President would feel that he was … an a ccomplice in a conspiracy against that Government … if he did not take every step within his constitutional and legal power … to … putting an end to these enormities 

Was it expected when the moneys of the United States were directed to be placed in that Bank that they would be put under the control of one man? …

… This corporation now holds in its hands the happiness and prosperity of the American people, it is high time to take the alarm.

If the despotism be already upon us and our only safety is in the mercy of the despot … how necessary it is to shake it off …

One of the most serious objections to the Bank of the United States isthe power which it concentrates.”

On December 3, 1833, in his 5th Annual Message, President Andrew Jackson condemnedNicholas Biddle’s Second Bank of the United States:

“This great and powerful institution had been actively engaged in attempting to influence the elections of the public officers by means of its money …

It being thus established by unquestionable proof that the Bank of the United States was converted into a permanent electioneering engine …

The efforts of the Bank to control public opinion, through the distresses of some and the fears of others …

Through presses known to have been sustained by its money it attempts by unfounded alarms to create a panic in all.”

President Andrew Jackson, whose wife died right before he took office, stated in a Protest Message to the Senate, April 15, 1834:

“The Bank of the United States, a great moneyed monopoly, had attempted to obtain a renewal of its charterby controlling the elections of the people … to control public opinion and force the Government to yield to its demands …

The only ambition I can feel is to acquit myself to Him to whom I must soon render an account of my stewardship …

to persuade my countrymen, so far as I may, that it is not in a …government supported by powerful monopolies … that they will find happiness … but in a plain system, void of pomp, protecting all and granting favors to none, dispensing its blessings, like the dews of Heaven.”

On December 1, 1834, in his 6th Annual Message, President Andrew Jacksonstated:

“Events have satisfied my mind, and I think the minds of the American people, that the mischief and dangers which flow from a national Bank far overbalance all its advantages.

The bold effort the present Bank has made to control the Government, the distresses it has wantonly produced, the violence of which it has been the occasion in one of our cities famed for its observance of law and order,

are but premonitions of the fate which awaits the American people should they be deluded into a perpetuation of this institution or the establishment of another like it.

On January 30, 1835, in the midst of the “Bank War,” President Andrew Jacksonsurvived an assassination attempt when Richard Lawrence fired two pistols at him at point blank range.

Perhaps due to the wet foggy weather in Washington, D.C., the guns misfired.


Davy Crockett, who was with the President, ran up and wrestled the assailant, disarming him.

Senator Thomas Hart Bentonwrote January 30, 1835 of how the incident:

“… irresistibly carried many minds to the belief in a superintending Providence, manifested in the extraordinary case of two pistols in succession — so well loaded, so cooly handled, and which afterwards fired with such readiness, force,and precision — missing fire each in his turn, when leveled eight feet at the President’s heart.”

When King William IV of England heard of the incident, he wrote expressing his concern. President Jackson wrote back:

“A kind of Providence had been pleased to shield me against the recent attempt upon my life, and irresistibly carried many minds to the belief in a superintending Providence.” 

Miracles in American History-32 Amazing Stories of Answered Prayers

On December 7, 1835, in his 7th Annual Message, President Andrew Jackson stated:

“We have felt but one class of these dangers exhibited in the contest waged by the Bank of the United States …

The Bank is, in fact, but one of the fruits of a system at war with the genius of all our institutions … whose great ultimate object and inevitable result … is the consolidation of all power in our system in one central government.

Lavish public disbursements and corporations with exclusive privileges would be its substitutes for the original … checks and balances of the Constitution …

Wherever this spirit has effected an alliance with political power, tyranny and despotism have been the fruit … It has to be incessantly watched, or it corrupts …

All history tells us that a free people should be watchful of delegated power, and should never acquiesce in a practice which will diminish their control over it.”

On December 5, 1836, in his 8th Annual Message,President Andrew Jacksonstated:

“It was in view of these evils, together with thedangerous power wielded by the Bank of the United States and its repugnance to our Constitution, that I was induced to exert the power conferred upon me by the American people to prevent the continuance of that institution …

The lessons taught by the Bank of the United States cannot well be lost upon the American people. They will take care never again to place so tremendous a power in irresponsible hands.”

On March 4, 1837, in his Farewell Address,President Jacksonstated:

“The distress and alarm which pervaded and agitated the whole country when the Bank of the United States waged war upon the people in order to compel them to submit to its demands cannot yet be forgotten …

The Government would have passed from the hands of the many to the hands of the few, and this organized money power from its secret conclave would have dictated the choice of your highest officers and compelled you to make peace or war, as best suited their own wishes.

The forms of your Government might for a time have remained, but its living spirit would have departed from it …”

Jackson continued:

“The distress … inflicted on the people by the Bank are some of the fruits of that system of policy which is continually striving to enlarge the authority of the Federal Government beyond the limits fixed by the Constitution …

The power which moneyed interest can exercise, when concentrated under a single head and with our present system of currency, was sufficiently demonstrated in the struggle made by the Bank of the United States …

The paper-money system and its natural associations — monopoly and exclusive privileges — have already struck their root too deep in the soil, and it will require all your efforts to check its further growth and to eradicate the evil …”

Jackson continued:

” The men who profit by the abusesand desire to perpetuate them willcontinue to besiege the halls of legislation in the General Government … and will seek by every artifice to mislead and deceive the public servants …

You have no longer any cause to fear danger from abroad; your strength and power are well known throughout the civilized world …

It is from within, among yourselves — from cupidity, from corruption … and inordinate thirst for power — that factions will be formed and liberty endangered.

… It is against such designs, whatever disguise the actors may assume, that you have especially to guard yourselves ...

Providence has showered on this favored land blessings without number, and has chosen you as the guardians of freedom, to preserve it for the benefit of the human race.

May He who holds in His hands the destinies of nations, make you worthy of the favors He has bestowed,

and enable you, with pure hearts and hands and sleepless vigilance, to guard and defend to the end of time, the great charge He has committed to your keeping.”



December ___, 1913

Federal Reserve Act of 1913 singed into law by President Woodrow Wilson two days before Christams while most senetors and confgressman on vactaion) transferring the power to print money to a private corp He would later sayoration. This money is then loaned to the gvernemtn at interest. The bill also create fractional-reserve banking which is way of shring the wealth with other banks, but those banks will be deliberately sabotaged in the future in order to consolidate the power of the banking system.

June 16, 1933, Banking Act of 1933 (Pub.L. 73–66, 48 Stat. 162)


Six men figured prominently in establishing this new entity, commonly referred to as the second Bank of the United States: the financiers John Jacob Astor, David Parish, Stephen Girard, and Jacob Barker; Alexander Dallas, who would become secretary of the Treasury in 1814; and Rep. John C. Calhoun of South Carolina. These men thought that reestablishing a national bank would solve some of the country’s economic woes. In particular, Astor, Parish, Girard, and Barker – as lenders and financiers — felt that a national bank would restore a stable currency, thereby avoiding bouts of inflation and insuring their business interests. —Federal Reserve History, The Second Bank of the United States: 1816–1841

Astor died in the sinking of RMS Titanic during the early hours of April 15, 1912. Astor was the richest passenger aboard the RMS Titanic and was thought to be among the richest people in the world at that time with a net worth of nearly $87 million when he died (equivalent to $2.26 billion in 2018).

Purchase by Girard

After the charter for the First Bank of the United States expired in 1811, Stephen Girard purchased most of its stock as well as the building and its furnishings on South Third Street in Philadelphia and opened his own bank, later known as Girard Bank. Girard hired George Simpson, the cashier of the First Bank of the United States, as cashier of the new bank, and with seven other employees, opened for business on May 18, 1812. He allowed the Trustees of the First Bank of the United States to use some offices and space in the vaults to continue the process of winding down the affairs of the closed bank at a very nominal rent.[18]

Over its early history the bank was known as “Girard’s Bank,”[19] or as “Girard Bank” [20] or also as “Stephen Girard’s Bank” or even the “Bank of Stephen Girard.” [19] Girard was the sole proprietor of his bank, and thus avoided the Pennsylvania state law which prohibited an unincorporated association of persons from establishing a bank, and which required a charter from the legislature for a banking corporation.[21]

Research Notes

See WikiQuote for Andrew Jackson